英语语法——代词4

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  四、any 一些

  1) any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。

  当句中含有任何的意思时,any可用于肯定句。

  Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。

  五、one, 复数形式为ones

  ones必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名词时无形容词在前,则用some, any,而不用ones。例如:

  Have you bought any rulers? 买尺了吗?

  Yes, I 've bought some. 买了,买了几把。

  3.14 one,that 和it

  one表示泛指,that和it 表示特指。that与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而it 与所指名词为同一个。例如:

  I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one.(不定)我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。

  The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought.(同类但不同个)你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。

  I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it.( 同一物)我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。

  3.15 one/another/the other

  one… the other 只有两个

  some… the others  有三个以上

  one… another,another…

  some… others,others…

  others = other people/things

  the others = the rest 剩余的全部

  1) 泛指另一个用another。

  2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other。

  3) 一定范围内三者,一个用one,另一个用one (another),第三个可用the other,a third。

  4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others。

  5) 泛指别的人或物时,用others当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时,也用others。

  3.16 “the”的妙用

  He is one of the students who help me.

  He is the one of the students who helps me. 他是帮我的学生之一。

  第一句定语从句与the students 一致。

  第二句定语从句与the one 一致。

  3.17 anyone/any one;no one/none;every/each

  1.anyone 和 any one

  anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物。

  2.no one 和none

  a) none 后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,而no one只单独使用,只指人。

  b) none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数。例如:

  None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。

  ---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗?

  ---- No one.            --没有。

  3.every 和each

  1) every 强调全体的概念, each强调个体概念。例如:

  Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。

  Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。

  2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。

  3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each可作代词或形容词。例如:

  Every boy has to take one. 每个男孩必须取一个。

  Each boy has to take one.

  Each of the boys has to take one.

  4) every不可以作状语,each可作状语。

  5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks等; each没有。

  6) every 与not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和not连用表示全部否定。例如:

  Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。

  Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。

  3.18 both, either, neither, all, any, none

  这些词都可用作代词或形容词。其位置都在be 动词之后,行为动词之前或第一个助动词之后。

  1) both (两者都),either(两者中任何一个),neither (两者都不)。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。例如:

  Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。

  2) both,either

  both与复数连用,either与单数连用。例如:

  Both the boys are clever.  两个男孩都很聪明。

  Either of the two boys is clever.

  There are flowers on both sides of the street. 路边长满了野花。

  There are flowers on either side of the street.

  3) all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。例如:

  All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。

  I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

  I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

  注意:all与none用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。例如:

  All of the students are there. 所有的学生都在那。

  All (of) the milk is there.  所有的牛奶都在那。

  3.19 many, much

  Many,much都意为"许多", many + 可数名词,much + 不可数名词。例如:

  How many people are there at the meeting? 多少人出席了会议。

  How much time has we left? 还剩多少时间?

  Many of the workers were at the meeting.许多工人在开会。

  Much of the time was spent on learning.学习上化了许多时间。

  3.20 few, little, a few, a little

  (a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词

  a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点

  few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。例如:

  He has a few friends.   他有几个朋友。

  He has few friends.    他几乎没有朋友。

  We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。

  There is little time left. 几乎没剩下什么时间了。

  固定搭配:only a few (=few)  not a few (=many)  quite a few (=many) many a (=many)。例如:

  Many books were sold.

  Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。

  典型例题:

  Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.

  A. little  B. few C. a little  D. a few

  答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用little表示几乎不。